History records that man's first heavier-than-air flight took place
on 17 December 1903 at Kitty Hawk in North Carolina, USA. The man
was Wilbur Wright in a machine that had two wings attached with criss-crossed
wires, a tail, an engine driving a propeller but little else other
than a great dream. The contraption flew a few feet above ground for
a few hundred yards. Just over Six decades later, man had walked on
the moon, and man made machines have gone beyond the solar system.
Still, in the few years just after 1903, the Americans were still
less enthused about powered flight than were the Europeans and by
1909, many pioneers had built and flown their own aeroplanes. They
were mostly French, followed by a few Germans, Dutch and Englishmen.
The first Indian, or indeed Asian, to procure aeroplanes was the
then young Maharaja of Patiala, Bhupinder Singh who was following
aviation developments with keen interest. The Maharaja sent his
Chief Engineer to Europe for an on-the spot study and then ordered
three aeroplanes including a Bleriot monoplane and Farman biplanes,
these aeroplanes arriving in the Punjab in December 1910.
The Sikhs have been pioneers in flying ever since, be it in military
or civil aviation, as pilots or engineers, virtually from this dawn
of flight. Even as the Twentieth Century is at an end and the new
Millennium is to begin, Sikhs remain at the forefront of aviation
activities be it with the Indian Air Force, Naval Air Arm, Army
Aviation Corps, or the air wings of the Coast Guard and Border Security
Force. Many are with International Airlines, as Boeing 747 "Jumbo"
commanders, flying distant intercontinental routes from Chicago
to Bombay or as Captains of Airbus A.320s, operating in South-East
Asia. Quite a number are with the Royal Malaysian and Singapore
Air Forces, others in East Africa.
First Indian to Join the Royal Flying
However, the very first Indian to fly, join the Royal Flying Corps,
get his wings, go into aerial combat on the Western Front, shoot
down German fighters and himself be seriously wounded in the air,
was an outstanding personality, Sardar Hardit Singh Malik, whose
life and times were so extraordinary and his achievements so varied,
that it is most meaningful to dwell upon his pioneering career.
Born on 23 November, 1892s in a distinguished Sikh family of Rawalpindi
in the Punjab, Hardit Singh was educated at an English Public School
(Eastborne College), from where he went to Balliol College at Oxford.
Graduating with honours, his scholastic achievements were matched
by his sports prowess, getting his blues in cricket and golf. When
the Great War broke out in 1914, he was at his second year at Oxford
and practically all his British colleagues volunteered to join the
Following a personal interview with General Henderson, Commanding
the Royal Flying Corps, Hardit Singh joined the RFC as a cadet at
Aldershot early in 1917, the first Indian, and Sikh, in any flying
service in the world. A specially-designed flying helmet was worn
by Hardit Singh over his turban. Hardit Singh was selected for fighters
and went 'solo' in a Caudron after just 2 1/2 hours instruction.
Hardit Singh was posted to Filton, near Bristol, flying the Avro
504, the BE 2C, the Sopwith Pup, the Neiuport and finally the Sopwith
Camel, the most advanced fighter at this time. At Filton, RFC pilots
were taught combat tactics, including the famous Immelmann turn,
Hardit Singh getting his wings in under a month. Posted to No.28
Squadron, equipped with the Camel, the formation soon flew out to
St.Omer in France, then to an airfield in Flanders near the village
of Droglandt. Here Lt. Hardit Singh Malik first met the new Commanding
Officer, the legendary Major William G.Barkar who had come from
Canada as a cavalryman in 1915, joined the RFC in 1916, flew Two
seaters and fighters, becoming an ace many times over. Barkar was
considered the greatest all-rounder pilot of World War One, and
he personally initiated Hardit Singh into the art and science of
aerial combat, leading him into the first actions including those
against the legendary "Red Baron", Manfred von Richthofen's
Staffel. In one major dog fight over 100 British and German fighters
scrapping over the battle lines,
Hardit Singh shot down his first German Fokkerand was to go on
to notch another eight aerial victories in the weeks ahead before
he, himself, was wounded in action but survived in amazing circumstances.
After months in hospital, Hardit Singh rejoined the service, now
renamed as the Royal Air Force, flying the Bristol Fighter, probably
the best fighter of the war, with No.141 Squadron at Biggin Hill,
a specialist unit for defending London from raiding Zeppelins and
As described then,"One of the first
to be posted to the new squadron was Lieutenant Hardit Singh Malik,
a Sikh from Rawalpindi .. a keen cricketer and golfer, Malik was
one of the most popular officers at Biggin Hill. He staunchly refused
to part with his turban and somehow managed to fit over it an outsized
flying helmet, earning the affectionate nick name of "flying
hobgoblin" from the ground crews. Besides Malik the Sikh, the
original fighter pilots of Biggin Hill included men were from Australia,
Canada, New Zealand, Rhodesia, Argentina, as well as the United
After the armistice, Hardit Singh was posted to another Brisfit
Squadron, No.11, at Nivelles near Brussels before he finally returned
home after the War, a hero in his own right. Hardit Singh Malik
was to later join the prestigious Indian Civil Service. As a postscript,
this remarkable man's chequered career included assignments as Trade
Commissioner in London, Hamburg, Washingtonns and Ottawa, becoming
Prime Minister of Patiala State, later Indian High Commissioner
to Canada, and Ambassador to France. After retirement in 1956, he
returned to his first passion,golf becoming India's finest player
ever, even with the two German bullets still embedded in his leg.
Hardit Singh Malik lived till he was 91, Passing away is NOvember
First Indian pilot to fly Solo from England
The next singularly important landmark in India's tryst with aviation
was when, in November 1929, the Aga Khan offered, through the Royal
Aero Club, a Special prize of £500 for the first Indian pilot
who would fly solo from England to India or vice versa. "It
must be a solo flight completed within six weeks from the date of
starting. The Prize will remain open for one year from January 1930".
Three contestants entered. They were an enthusiastic JRD Tata (who
later founded Tata Airlines, fore runner of Air India and was to
become a pillar of the Tata Group). Man Mohan Singh, a civil engineer
graduating from Bristol who had learnt to fly in England, and a
young Aspy Merwan Engineer (later to be Chief of the Indian Air
Force). Flying in single engined, light aeroplanes with simple instruments
and without radio aids, the three adventurous young men set out
on their long journey with faith and hope. Man Mohan Singh took
off from Croydon airport, south of London, in a Gypsy Moth which
he called "Miss India", and Aspy Engineer followed the
same route while J.R.D.Tata, also in a Gipsy Moth, started his journey
in the reverse direction. After Croydon, Man Mohan Singh flew on
to Lympne, Le Bourget (Paris), Dijon, Marseilles, Rome , Naples
Catania, Tripoli and Sirle. From Gaza, he flew eastwards to India,
with young Aspy Engineer trailing a day behind. ManMohan Singh finally
landed at Drigh Road, Karachi on 12 May, 1930, thus winning the
historic air race. Aspy Engineer landed the next day and although
he was second, owing to a technicality, was eventually declared
the winner which Man Mohan accepted heartily. Even though Aspy was
awarded the Aga Khan prize, Man Mohan Singh was richly honoured
by the Parsi community at Bombay for his magnanimous gesture.
Cadets sent to Cranwell and Forming of
the Indian Air Force
The genesis behind the foundation of an air arm for India goes back
to the appointment of the Skeen Committee in 1925 which eventually
recommended in 1928, amongst other things, that "Indians
be made eligible for commissioning in the Artillery Engineers, Signal,
Tank and Air arms of the Army in India".
In the competitive combined examination for admission to Sandhurst,
Moolwich and Cranwell in November 1929, the highest-scoring candidate
(Prem Singh Gyani) opted for the Artillery while those topping the
list for the Royal Air Force College at Cranwell were Bhupinder
Singh, followed immediately by his cousin, Amarjit Singh. Also qualified
were A.B. Awan, H.C.Sircar, Subroto Mukerjee and J.N.Tandon and
these first six Indian cadets proceeded to England in September
A.Singh and B.Singh belonged to a well known Sikh family of Sargodha
in the Punjab, Amarjit having studied at the Government College
Lahore and Bhupinder at the Lahore Christian College, both being
great sportsmen at home and who were to make a mark in hockey and
tennis while at Cranwell. After getting their "wings"
in July 1932, they were the pioneers who formed "A" Flight
of No. 1 Squadron of the Indian Air Force on 1 April 1933. Tragically,
both were killed in an air accident six months later during an air
exercise near Hyderabad-Sind.
Over the next six years, a trickle of Indian cadets were sent to
the RAF College at Cranwell and, after commissioning, slowly augmented
the fledgling Indian Air Force. Amongst them were Aspy Engineer,
K. K. "Jumbo" Majumdar, Daljit Singh, Narendra, Henry
Ranganadhan and Mehar Singh. By April 1938, No.1 Squadron IAF had
been expanded to three Flights and were located together, for the
first time, at Ambala even as the last of the Cranwell-trained pilots
were to shortly augment its strength.
In India of the late twenties, there remained many sceptics who
were dubious of India's ability to raise and run an efficient air
force. The key to an effective fighting air arm would not only be
the aviators but aircrafts men, mechanics and technical tradesmen
who would constitute its backbone. The establishment of an IAF was
timely but "it takes more than pilots to create an Air Force"
an all important connecting link would be the technical inspectors
and senior NCOs and these would have to be British as "we should
feel dubious of Indian aircraftsmen".
Some British advisors however felt that there were selected Indian
artisans of considerable proficiency in wood work and metal work,
the best coming from the Punjab as "most
Sikhs made quite good mechanics and there is one tribe of Punjabi
Musalmans which supplies nearly all the regimental armourers for
regiments of the Frontier ... but the average Indian mechanic is
very casual and untrustworthy" ... "the care of aeroplanes
demand meticulous attention to detail and a conscience which will
leave nothing to chance. The lives of airmen depend on the thoroughness
with which aircraft are kept in perfect flying trim".
To the good fortune of the future Indian Air Force, amongst the
first to apply were a number of well educated, highly motivated
and patriotic individuals who sacrificed better emoluments in order
to join what they felt was an important contribution to a future
free India. One of them was Harjinder Singh, from Hoshiarpur, then
studying at the Maclaghen Engineering College, Lahore but for some
time obsessed with joining the air force undeterred by the IAF Selection
Ward which first insisted that they only wanted "unqualified
and untrained apprentices', Harjinder Singh finally had his interview,
along With other engineering Students and was amongst the first
nine to be selected in November 1930. They were asked to report
to the RAF Aircraft Depot at Drigh Road in January 1931 as members
of the Indian Followers Corps of the RNF in India. (Hawaii Sepoy
Harjinder Singh was to eventually become an Air Vice Marshall of
the Indian Air Force and in the early 1960s, lay the foundations
for a civil aircraft industry, based at Kanpur).
The infant, and tiny Indian Air Force first "cut its teeth'
in operations on the North West Frontier in 1938 and then also gained
its first gallantry award. A bombing attack was to be carried out
by Flt.Lt. Peter Haynes, with Hawai Sepoy 1st Class Kartar Singh
Tounque as air gunner / bombardier.
Coming from a farming family of Lyallpur, Kartar Singh had schooled
at Ropar, had done mechanical & electrical engineering at the
Victoria Diamond Jubilee Institute at Lahore, getting his diploma
in 1933. Applying for the Indian Air Force, he had joined a batch
of 80 apprentices in February 1934 and spent two years at Drigh
Road (Karachi). As No.65 Hawai Sepoy 1st Class, Kartar Singh was
given the trade "Fitter Armourer" but soon qualified as
an air gunner as well, and went with 'A' Flight to Peshawar in 1936.
On this memorable day's single sortie, Peter Haynes flew level
and steady as Kartar Singh switched on the Mk.IX bomb sight, calculated
terminal velocity, fed in speed and heading on the compass, completed
calculations and released the 112-lb RL bombs over the Pir of Ipi's
fortress. Being in the rear cockpit, Kartar Singh could well observe
the great accuracy of the bombing, which was pin point. He was the
first in the IAF to be Mentioned-in-Despatches for "Operations
in Waziristan 1937-38".
September 1938 saw the entry of the last batch of Indian cadets
to RAF Cranwell (there were no entries in 1937), with Arjan Singh,
Prithipal Singh and Kailash Bahl joining the College in September
1938. Bahl was withdrawn in July 1939 but Arjan Singh and Prithipal
Singh completed their training by 22 December 1939, the course having
been shortened by six months because, in September 1939, war had
been declared against Germany, the second great war of the 20th
Flight Cadet Prithipal Singh, a tall, strikingly handsome Sikh
from Aithison College, Lahore was one of the finest sportsmen at
Cranwell, playing in the Cricket XI, Hockey XI and setting numerous
records in athletics. His compatriot, Flt.Cadet Arjan Singh, equally
striking and well built, "played
magnificently in the defense" in hockey for Cranwell
and was awarded Blues in Athletics, Swimming and Hockey. Air Vice
Marshal John Baldwin who was Commandant of the RAF College during
this period, was mightily impressed by these Indian Flight Cadets
who would, soon enough, prove their mettle in action during war
operations, hardly three years from the time they left Cranwell.
In the decades to come, the Indian Air Force's first Air Chief
Marshal, Arjan Singh would retunes to Cranwell as the Chief Guest
of Honour to review two passing out parades, the College repeatedly
saluting one of its most brilliant products.
In, September 1938, "C" Flight of No.1 Squadron IAF with
its Wapiti IIA army co-operation in biplanes moved to Miranshah,
under Flying Officer "Jumbo" Majumdar, with Flying Officer
Mehar Singh on his first of many tours of duty on the North West
Frontier. The high standards set by "A" Flight a year
earlier in the same area and their exemplary performance was difficult
to emulate but Jumbo was determined to do even more operational
flying.. "C" Flight in fact flew nearly 400 hours monthly,
Mehar "Baba" (as he was as affectionately titled by ASPY
Engineer) achieving a scorching hundred hours himself in the first
month. On one of his sorties, Mehar Singh and his air gunner Ghulam
Ali had a nasty experience when, during a strafing attack on tribesmen
in a particularly wild valley near Shaidar, not visited by the Army
since 1890, his Wapiti was hit by bullets and fuel pipe damaged.
With great skill and verve, Mehar Singh force landed the biplane
with bombs still attached, up-hill on a semi-flat spur on a mountain
ledge. It was late in the afternoon, Mehar Singh and Ghulam Ali
extricated the lewis gun, took refuge in a cave even as hostile
tribesmen searched for them. At nightfall, the airmen walked back
without maps, evading the hostiles and returned safely
Battle of Britain
On 1 August 1940, when the Battle for France had been lost and Battle
of Britain was imminent, there were almost one hundred Indian Air
Force Volunteer Reserve (IAFVR) personnel that reported to the Selection
Board at Ambala and were commissioned on the very same day. Of them,
24 were hand-picked for secondment to the Royal Air Force and within
four weeks, they had sailed from Bombay on board a P&O liner
being used as a troopship to England. The 24 Indian officers, to
be known as the IAFVR "X" Squad, were mostly between 19
and 25 years old, having had elementary flying training at various
flying clubs in India, a large number of them from Walton, Lahore.
The senior most amongst them was the redoubtable Man Mohan Singh
who had "won" the Aga Khan Air Race ten years later and
pioneered many other flights to other parts of the world and in
India. Affectionately known to the IAFVR as "Chacha" (Uncle),
Man Mohan was, at 34 years old, the most mature and experienced
flyer in the Squad . The Indian contingent had, in fact, arrived
at the height of the Luftwaffe's blitz against England and in the
midst of what was to be immortalized as the Battle of Britain. The
24 Indians were shortly moved to a Flying School some miles South
of Glasgow, in Scotland. After four weeks, the IAFVR 'X' Squad was
split into two, young Shivdev Singh being amongst those who started
advanced flying training near Liverpool where, once again, the Luftwaffe
carried out a bombing raid. After a few more months of training,
the Indian Pilot Officers were posted to various RAF squadrons and
Shivdev Singh found himself posted to the famous No. XV (heavy bomber)
Squadron flying the Short Stirling four-engined bomber aircraft,
the very first to be so-equipped in the RAF.
Hard flying training followed and Shivdev Singh's "extraordinary
performance" got him onto an operational tour very quickly.
Raids over Germany included night attacks on the German submarine
pens at Kiel, the bombers flying through heavy black fire with searchlights
lighting up the night sky. Raids on German industrial centres in
the Ruhr were equally tough and Shivdev's Stirling once got battered
from flak, losing an engine, with flight controls damaged.
Of the 24 Indian pilots who had volunteered to serve with the Royal
Air Force in Britain, six did not measure up to standard and were
assigned other general duties. Of the 18 who then flew with the
RAF, seven were selected as fighter pilots, two of them, Ranjan
Dutt and Mohinder Singh Pujji, distinguishing themselves.
flew rhubarbs with a Spitfire Squadron over France,
and Hurricane missions over Burma.
In Pujji's words,
"I was posted to No. 253 Squadron RAF, flying Hurricane IIB
fighters from RAF Kenley, which is a couple of miles south of Croydon.
We were a mixed bunch, with pilots also from Poland, America, Canada
and Australia. Equipped with twelve machine guns, our Hurricanes
were extensively flown day and night, to intercept German bombers
and reconnaissance aircraft.
I was later attached with No.43 Squadron,
flying Hurricanes from Martlesham, the RAF fighter Squadrons being
switched from base to base every few weeks, but remaining in the
Greater London area. Later, we converted to the Spitfire Mk.V and
I was promoted to Flight Commander. Our operational task now included
fighter sweeps over occupied Europe and we made low-level attacks
on enemy targets when we were not required to provide fighter escort
to RAF bombers. During these operations, I was involved in many
dog fights with Luftwaffe fighters and my total tally was two Messerschmitt
Me 109s confirmed as shot down and three damaged".
Fg Offr Mohinder Singh Pujji
Marshal Shivdev Singh was with Bomber Command in the
European theatre before coming to the Burma Front.
Shivdev Singh, who was to have a most distinguished career in the
IAF, rising to Air Marshal and becoming Vice Chief of Air Staff,
in characteristic modesty, attributed his fame "to mistaken
identity, that with Chacha Man Mohan Singh" whose long and
varied flying experience had resulted in the latter's immediate
command of a Sunderland flying boat with RAF Coastal Command, hunting
German submarines during the battle for the Atlantic. Tragically,
'Chacha' Man Mohan Singh was to be killed in action in January 1942
while gallantly rescuing Dutch civilians in the distant port of
Broome, north-western Australia.
Indian Air Force in Burma Campaigns
Meanwhile, back in India, the IAF was being expanded to seven
Squadrons and modernized with Hurricane fighters and Vengeance dive
bombers. No.3 Squadron IAF, commanded by Sqn.Ldr. Prithipal Singh
and flying Hurricane II fighter bombers from September 1943 to January
1945 became mainstay of the North West Frontier Watch and Ward duties.
For four years, with brief interruptions for conversion paining
or special duties for training with Army units, it carried out the
W&W task and its experienced pilots became a pool from which
were drawn many IAF officers to command or stiffen the new IAF squadrons
in the years of great expansion. Nos. 3 and 4 Squadrons were re-equipped
with the Hurricane IIC in January and June 1943 respectively but
the third IAF formation to fly Hurricanes was No.6 Squadron under
redoubtable Sqn.Ldr.Mehar Singh who was its commanding officer for
over two years from December 1947 till end December 1944.
No. 6 Squadron had a very high serviceability record, their Hurricanes
immaculately maintained and the Squadron was adjudged the smartest
unit during the IAF's 10th Anniversary parade and fly past at Ambala
on 1 st April 1943.
No.6 Squadron's efficiency, enthusiasm and excellent performance
evoked numerous messages of praise which was to result, in November
1943, in its selection for the coming campaign in Burma, the first
squadron of the newly equipped Indian Air Force to go to War of
the Second Arakan Campaign, achieving great distinction and earning
the sobriquet "Eyes of the XIV Army".
Before the 1943 winter campaign began, in which Air Chief Marshal
Sir Richard Peirse had "ordained" that the Indian Air
Force was to go into battle with their new Hurricanes and Vengeances,
he called a meeting of the seven IAF Squadron Commanders in New
Delhi, four of which were ready to go into the front line, the others
then converting to their new aircraft. Interestingly, of these seven
Squadron Commanders of the Indian Air Force, five were Sikhs: S
/ L Arjan Singh (No.1 Squadron), S/L Surjit Singh
(No.2 Squadron), S/ L Prithipal Singh (No.3 Squadron), S / L Dalip
Singh Majithia (No.4 Squadron)and S/L Mehar Singh (No.6 Squadron).
The C.O.s were ordered to fly in their own aircraft from wherever
they happened to be and report at Air H.Q. for the opening of the
conference by the AOC-in-C. All got the signal in ample time to
act on it, except for Sqn. Ldr.Mehar Singh, commanding No.6 Squadron.
As recorded, "He was taking his boys to the front at the time
and had only received the signal at nine o'clock on the night before
he was supposed to report to Delhi. He took off at 10 p.m., on a
moonless night to fly alone and without wireless aids to Delhi.
He flew at fourteen thousand feet, landed at Allahabad to refuel
and reached Willingdon airport, nine hundred miles from his starting
point at 4 a.m. He was at the opening session of the conference
that morning with all the others, as if nothing had happened. It
was a magnificent flight. Sir Richard described it Sater, as "a
feat of which any air force in the world would be proud".
Leader Surjit Singh Majithia standing by his Hurricane.
In his classic account of the War in Burma "Defeat
Into Victory", Field Marshal Sir William Slim describes his
visit to No.6 Squadron and its C.O. Sqn.Ldr.Mehar Singh who were
keeping up steady patrols with Tactical-Reconnaissance Hurricanes:
"I was impressed by the conduct
of a recce squadron of the Indian Air Force. Flying in pairs, the
Indian pilots in their outmoded Hurricanes went out, time and again,
in the face of overwhelming enemy fighter superiority. I looked
in on the Squadron just at a hone when news had come in that the
last patrol had run into a bunch of Oscars and had been shot down.
The Sikh Squadron Leader, an old friend of mine, at once took out
the next patrol himself and completed the mission. His methods,
rumour had it, were a little unorthodox. It was said that if any
of his young pilots made a bad landing he would take them behind
a basha and beat them ! Whatever he did, it was effective, they
were a happy, efficient and very gallant squadron".
In April 1944, No.6 Squadron notched a scorching 620 hours of operational
flying, when the Kaladan and Mayu valleys received increased attention.
Flt.Lt.Mohinder Singh Pujji, one of the Flight Commanders who had
earlier been with the RAF over France and the Middle East, flew
as many as six sorties a day, clocking 61 operational flying hours
in one month.
At the beginning of June, after an incredible operational tour,
No. 6 were withdrawn from the front. Squadron Leader Mehar Singh
was awarded the only DSO to an Indian of the Air Force. "Meher
'Baba ' remains perhaps the greatest legend of the Indian Air Force.
His extraordinary, and inspired flying skills and leadership were
at their most brilliant during the traumatic months before partitions
of India in 1947 and then immediately thereafter, during the Kashmir
operations of 1947-48. To chronicle these would fill many volumes.
NO 1 Squadron of the Indian Air Force was to be in the thick of
the vital battles of 1944, returning to war and glory under command
of Sqn. Ldr. Arjan Singh. The "Tigers" had earlier been
based at Kohat, operating Hawker Hurricane IIBs when during December
1943, the C-in-C Indian Army Field Marshal Sir Claude Auchinleck
visited the RAF Station and also inspected No. I Squadron. He was
most impressed by its standard and spirit and when Sqn.Ldr. Arjan
Singh advocated the intense desire of No. I Squadron to go back
into battle, keenly supported by the RAF Station Commander, he gave
his acquiescence. Within a week of this request, No. I Squadron
was ordered to move immediately to Imphal on the Manipur front where
massive buildups were taking place on both sides of the Assam Burma
border. The next fifteen months were to be breathless with action
and epoch marking in the already checquered history of the Tiger
No. I Squadron reached Imphal (Main) on 3 February 1944 and were
thereafter to remain in action for a record 14 months, taking vital
part in the fateful siege of Imphal followed by the trans-Chindwin
and trans-Irrawaddy offenses. Once again, No. 1 Squadron IAF shared
the base with their old colleagues-in-arms, No.28 Squadron RAF,
both being Tactical Reconnaissance Units (Tac/R), cooperating closely
with the Army.
No.1 Squadron under Sqn.Ldr. Arjan Singh commenced operational
flying immediately, with sector reconnaissance flown on the 5 February,
carrying out offensive, tactical and photographic sorties to observe
Japanese movements on the Chindwin, beyond Tiddim, and as far east
as the Myitkyina-Mandalay railway, much valuable information being
obtained by the Squadron.
The siege of Imphal was finally broken and the Japanese 15th and
31st Divisions began to disintegrate and while still resisting,
were definitely on the retreat. However, in the Palel area and the
area south of Imphal, the Japanese 33rd Division hung on grimly
to their positions but on 2 July, the Japanese actually discontinued
their Imphal operations, and concentrated on forming defensive lines
to check the Allied advance. Following opening of the Imphal-Kohima
road, No. 1 Squadron's Hurricanes were involved, in addition to
the tasks referred to, in reconnoitring the Japanese lines of communication
in use by the retreating troops and attacking them. Sqn.Ldr. Arjan
Singh's leadership had a distinct style: quiet courage, no flamboyance,
firmness but with a ready smile.
After the Japanese had been thrown back, in a great and signal
Chief Marshal Arjan Singh DFC during a visit to RAF
Cranwell during the Nineties.
Arjan Singh and indeed the Indian Air Force itself, the Supreme
Commander Lord Louis Mountbatten, personally flew into Imphal and
in the presence of Air Chief Marshal Sir Richard Peirse and the
assembled Squadron at the airfield, pinned the Distinguished Flying
Cross on Arjan Singh's tunic. In the few words of the Supreme Commander
"He had done a great job".
Twenty years later, Arjan Singh was to be appointed Chief of Air
Staff and led the indian Air Force during the September 1965 war.
After retiring in 1969, he served as India's ambassdor in several
countries and became Lt. Governor of Delhi. Most active on the Golf
Course, he is still regarded by nearly as simply "The Chief".
The next Sikh to be Chief of Air Staff, after
Air Chief Marshal Arjan Singh, DFC was Air Chief Marshal Dilbagh
Singh (198l - 84), a highly regarded fighter pilot who had taken
part in the J &K operations in 1947, raised and commanded No.
1 Squadron with the new French Mystere IVA fighter-bomber in 1957
and repeated such a pioneering task in 1963 when he raised and commanded
No. 28 Squadron with Russian MiG-21s, "the First Supersonics"
. (Sadly the news came in as this article was being published that
Sardar Dilbagh Singh ji passed away in city of Dehradun on Feb.
These are myriad examples of legendary flying Sikhs in the Indian
Air Force and, indeed, in the air arms of other fighting Services
in India. Flying Officer Lal Singh Grewal joined the last IAF formation
raised during World War II, No.10 Squadron, with whom he flew Hurricane
IICs in the Arakan in 1944-45. After the war, and conversion to
multi-engine aircraft, he was amongst the first to fly troops into
the Vale of Kashmir in October 1947 and, in November 1948, formed
No.5 Squadron, the IAF's first heavy bomber unit with B-24 Liberators.
In 1963, and the aftermath of the frontier war with China, Lal Singh
was handpicked to establish the Aviation Research Centre (ARC) for
special operations, about which very little has still been revealed.
Air Marshal Lal Singh Grewal later rose to be the Vice Chief of
Air Staff. There have been other Sikh Vice Chiefs of the Air Force,
including Air Marshals Shivdev Singh and Air Marshal Prem Pal Singh.
The present (April 1999) Vice Chief is Air Marshal Pritam Singh
"Ben" who, in 1982, had formed the IAF's first dedicated
formation aerobatic team the Thunderbolts, flying Hunters.